In the RMS Foundation the following methods of analyses of metallic, ceramic or polymeric materials are at your disposal. All testing services have been accredited according to ISO/IEC 17025.
The qualitative and quantitative energy dispersive and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyses (XRF) serve to determine the composition of metallic and non-metallic materials (all elements from sodium to uranium).
Quantitative optical spark emission spectrometry (OES) on metallic materials to determine the chemical composition.
ICP-MS is a very sensitive technique applicable to a large variety of inorganic analytical tasks. A total of 70 elements can be simultaneously quantified down to trace levels in the ppb (part per billion; ng/mL) or sub-ppb range. For solid samples or organic matrices, chemical digestion methods are applied prior to Analysis.
In the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the surface of solid or powdery materials, the energy dispersive spectroscopy by X-rays (EDX) on the electron microscope is used to identify the elements from bor to uranium contained in the sample surface. The quantitative analyses allow determining the content of selected elements.
Equipment: Zeiss Sigma 300 VP with Oxford x-Max 50 Detector
Please read more on "energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy" in our Newsletter No. 6
This analysis is based on the inert gas fusion (IGF) principle, which involves melting of the sample material in a graphite crucible at high temperatures. The principle is also commonly termed a melt extraction (ME) It is used to determine the carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and argon content of metallic or non-metallic materials.
Infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR) for the identification of organic compounds, polymers, adhesives, greases, oils, etc. A fully automated FT-IR microscope with motorized ATR crystal (ATR = attenuated total reflection) is available for measurements on microscopic samples (solids, powders, liquids) in the measurement modes transmission, reflection and ATR.
Assessment of the degree of crosslinking in crosslinked polyethylene (PE-X) pipes and fittings by determination of the gel content by solvent extraction. The mass of the sample is determined before and after immersion into the solvent for a defined period of time. The degree of crosslinking is expressed as the mass percentage of insoluble material.
This differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to measure a specimen’s enthalpy variations when heated, cooled or at a constant temperature. This method enables not only to measure the temperatures at which the variations in enthalpy occur, but also the heat of reaction in a quantitative way. The measurements can be realised in different gas atmospheres using various heating or cooling rates.
The measurement of the heat emitted by a chemical and/or physical reaction permits to pinpoint the heat-flow data in the milliwatt range and on isothermal conditions continuously as a function of time. During the measurement, the specially constructed «Admix» injection ampoule enables to mix and inject the liquids on isothermal conditions in order to investigate, for instance, the first phases of a cement reaction.
The incineration or calcination method is used to determine the residues on ignition or the ash of polymers as well as the textile-glass and mineral-filler content of fibreglass reinforced plastics.
Serves to determine the inherent viscosity and molecular weight of PE and polylactides.
Particle size analysis is used to determine particle size distributions of granules, powders and suspensions. The size distribution of abrasion particles from wear tests can also be investigated. The following measuring methods are available: Laser diffraction and automated microscopy.
In laser diffraction, the particles pass through a laser beam. The monochromatic laser light is more or less diffracted depending on the particle size. The characteristic, ring-shaped intensity distribution is recorded by numerous detectors and can be converted into a particle size distribution using a suitable model (according to Mie or Fraunhofer). The measuring range is 0.04 - 2000 µm for dry measurement and, using additional polarization detectors, 0.017 - 2000 µm for wet measurement.
In automated microscopy, optical or electron beam based microscopes are used after filtration of a suspension to measure the particles remaining on the dried filter. Alternatively, non-spherical granules or powders can be distributed on a suitable surface and measured automatically by light-optical means (dry measurement).
Equipment: Beckman Coulter LS 13320 (laser diffraction) / Jomesa HFD4 (automated light microscopy, dried filters or glass plate) / SEM (X-ray electron beam microscopy, dried filters)
Please read more on «Particle size measurements» in our Newsletter No. 17
Non-destructive coating thickness measurement according to the eddy current method (DIN EN ISO 2316) and the magnetic induction method (DIN EN ISO 2178). Due to automatic substrate material recognition and the integration of both methods, non-magnetic coatings on steel and iron (Fe) and nonconductive layers on non-ferromagnetic metals or nonconductive substrates can be measured. The method permitted a determination of the coating thickness in a range of 0 – 2000 µm (Fe) respectively 0 – 1200 µm (NFe). With a measurement stand a precise and exact measurement even on small samples is possible.
Fast, non-destructive and precise measurement of the electrical conductivity of non-ferrous metals using various frequencies. Determination of the hardening condition of precipitation hardenable alloys (e.g. Al, Cu).
Equipment: Fischer Sigmascope SMP10
These measurements are used to determine the local corrosion properties of real surfaces of metallic materials using the EC-pen. Pen tip: A = 1.5 mm2.
Equipment: EC-pen with Jaissle potentiostat
Please read more on «Corrosion and Corrosion Measurement» in our Newsletter No. 3
Inorganic leachables and extractables from medical devices or device components are quantified by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following extraction in a temperature-controlled incubator shaker according to ISO 10993.