X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
XPS is a very surface-sensitive technique (top 5-10 nm) to determine the chemical composition of solids quantitatively. It is used for the non-destructive detection of all elements (with the exception of hydrogen and helium) and for the determination of the oxidation states of an element. Applications: Analysis of cleanliness / soiling, residues, discolorations, surface modifications, coatings etc.
Contact angle measurements
A measurement of the contact angle allows a quick characterisation of a surface. Is it hydrophilic or hydrophobic? Are there contaminations? Did a coating work or not? Using two different test liquids, the surface energy can be determined.
Please read more on «Contact Angle Measurements» in our Newsletter No. 10